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Parmigiani Fleurier Fleurier Tonda 1950 squelette
TOP
Parmigiani Fleurier Fleurier Tonda 1950 squelette
S$ 38,328
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CORTI GIOIELLI
 
IT
Vacheron Constantin | Overseas 42040/423A Chronometer
TOP
Vacheron Constantin | Overseas 42040/423A Chronometer
S$ 8,918
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Shop One Watch and Jewellery (Hong Kong)
 
HK
Cvstos Jetliner
TOP
Cvstos Jetliner
S$ 20,273
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VI Watch Guy
93
VI
Baume & Mercier automatic chronograph
TOP
Baume & Mercier automatic chronograph
S$ 5,291
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i monili di Gaspare Aprile srl
10
IT
Orient FAC00005W0
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RedSol Pte Ltd
 
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Rolex Oyster Perpetual 114300
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S$ 5,750
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
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Richard Mille RM 011 03 Rose Gold TI
TOP
Richard Mille RM 011 03 Rose Gold TI
S$ 321,578
Free shipping
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Express Watches
6
US
Omega Vintage Seamaster Calender Honeycomb Dial Automatic
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S$ 3,705
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SG
Davidoff Men's Very Zino (Self-Winding), 10009
TOP
Davidoff Men's Very Zino (Self-Winding), 10009
S$ 1,250
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Private Seller
 
SG
Ulysse Nardin Maxi Marine Diver Black sea Chrono
TOP
Ulysse Nardin Maxi Marine Diver Black sea Chrono
S$ 14,273
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CANTELI JOYEROS SL
14
ES
Zenith PILOT AERONEF 48 MM TYPE XX TOURBILLON
TOP
Zenith PILOT AERONEF 48 MM TYPE XX TOURBILLON
S$ 64,661
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ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Omega Constellation 1966 vintage watch 712 automatic chronometer
TOP
Omega Constellation 1966 vintage watch 712 automatic chronometer
S$ 1,820
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Fine Auction Club
213
UK
Tudor HERITAGE BLACK BAY DARK 79230DK
TOP
Tudor HERITAGE BLACK BAY DARK 79230DK
S$ 4,793
Free shipping
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Plus Watch - Luxury Watches
2993
IT
Tissot T065.430.16.031.00
Tissot T065.430.16.031.00
S$ 538
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RedSol Pte Ltd
 
SG
Rolex GMT-Master II Ceramic 116710LN
Rolex GMT-Master II Ceramic 116710LN
S$ 12,150
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
SG
Richard Mille RM 011 Ivory
TOP
Richard Mille RM 011 Ivory
S$ 279,632
Free shipping
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Express Watches
6
US
Seiko Ananta Chronograph - Rare Edition
Seiko Ananta Chronograph - Rare Edition
S$ 5,173
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Lu-Ann Vintage Collection
 
SG
Tissot Seastar 1000
Tissot Seastar 1000
S$ 850
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Private Seller
SG
Ulysse Nardin Marine Diver  Black Sea Blue Dial
TOP
Ulysse Nardin Marine Diver Black Sea Blue Dial
S$ 9,221
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CANTELI JOYEROS SL
14
ES
Zenith EL PRIMERO CHRONOMASTER 1969
TOP
Zenith EL PRIMERO CHRONOMASTER 1969
S$ 20,207
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ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Rolex Unpolished 18K Gold Day-Date Factory 8+2 Diamond Dial w/...
TOP
Rolex Unpolished 18K Gold Day-Date Factory 8+2 Diamond Dial w/...
S$ 18,169
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Austins Watches Inc.
210
US
Omega CONSTELLATION OMEGA CO-AXIAL 38 MM ROSE GOLD
TOP
Omega CONSTELLATION OMEGA CO-AXIAL 38 MM ROSE GOLD
S$ 17,350
Seller
Plus Watch - Luxury Watches
2993
IT
IWC IW327011
IWC IW327011
S$ 5,284
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RedSol Pte Ltd
 
SG
Omega Seamaster Planet Ocean
Omega Seamaster Planet Ocean
S$ 3,190
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
SG
Omega Constellation
TOP
Omega Constellation
S$ 10,180
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Plus Ultra AG
 
CH
TAG Heuer SLR Mercedes-Benz Chronograph CAG2011
TAG Heuer SLR Mercedes-Benz Chronograph CAG2011
S$ 4,474
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Lu-Ann Vintage Collection
 
SG
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak
S$ 19,500
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Private Seller
 
SG
Ulysse Nardin Marine Chronograph
TOP
Ulysse Nardin Marine Chronograph
S$ 12,749
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CANTELI JOYEROS SL
14
ES
Zenith Pilot Type 20 Tourbillon Diamonds
TOP
Zenith Pilot Type 20 Tourbillon Diamonds
S$ 181,378
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ZEGG & CERLATI
53
MC
Rolex GMT Master II BLNR NEW 116710BLNR
TOP
Rolex GMT Master II BLNR NEW 116710BLNR
S$ 16,438
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Filipucci Juweliers
449
NL
Rolex 36mm SS DATEUST Matte Black Dial Leather Strap w/ Rolex Box
TOP
Rolex 36mm SS DATEUST Matte Black Dial Leather Strap w/ Rolex Box
S$ 4,887
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Austins Watches Inc.
210
US
Seiko SKX007K1
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S$ 299
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RedSol Pte Ltd
 
SG
Rolex GMT Master "Pepsi" 16700
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S$ 15,350
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
SG
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date, Full Set
TOP
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date, Full Set
S$ 11,584
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Plus Ultra AG
 
CH
Rolex Midsize Datejust Diamond Champagne Dial
Rolex Midsize Datejust Diamond Champagne Dial
S$ 6,501
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Lu-Ann Vintage Collection
 
SG
Richard Mille RM 30 Rose Gold
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S$ 161,000
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SG
Longines Master Collection - Gold/Steel 'Diamonds Collection'
TOP
Longines Master Collection - Gold/Steel 'Diamonds Collection'
S$ 2,245
Free shipping
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Pawndeluxe
191
NL
Zenith EL PRIMERO TOURBILLON
TOP
Zenith EL PRIMERO TOURBILLON
S$ 50,757
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ZEGG & CERLATI
53
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Cartier Ballon Bleu De Cartier Watch
TOP
Cartier Ballon Bleu De Cartier Watch
S$ 9,542
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WatchesofMayfair.com
468
UK
Rolex 14K Yellow Gold DATE Custom Ox Blood Diamond Dial & Bezel
TOP
Rolex 14K Yellow Gold DATE Custom Ox Blood Diamond Dial & Bezel
S$ 6,425
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Austins Watches Inc.
210
US
Seiko SKX009K1
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S$ 299
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RedSol Pte Ltd
 
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Rolex Yachtmaster II in Half Gold 116681
Rolex Yachtmaster II in Half Gold 116681
S$ 27,100
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
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Gérald Genta Perpetual Calendar Automatic, Rare
TOP
Gérald Genta Perpetual Calendar Automatic, Rare
S$ 11,233
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Plus Ultra AG
 
CH
Vacheron Constantin Platinum Power Reserve with Date
Vacheron Constantin Platinum Power Reserve with Date
S$ 21,462
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Lu-Ann Vintage Collection
 
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Patek Philippe Aquanaut
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S$ 51,500
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SG
Gérald Genta Arena Sport Retro SSPL10 Men's Watch - Papers
TOP
Gérald Genta Arena Sport Retro SSPL10 Men's Watch - Papers
S$ 4,170
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Pawndeluxe
191
NL
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
S$ 32,000
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Fino Pte Ltd
SG
Cartier Tank Americaine
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Cartier Tank Americaine
S$ 6,752
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WatchesofMayfair.com
468
UK
Rolex 36m SS Explorer Custom PVD "Tin" Color w/ Original Box...
TOP
Rolex 36m SS Explorer Custom PVD "Tin" Color w/ Original Box...
S$ 7,683
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Austins Watches Inc.
210
US
Seiko SKX007J1
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S$ 329
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Rolex Datejust Boy Size in Yellow Gold 68278
Rolex Datejust Boy Size in Yellow Gold 68278
S$ 8,950
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
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Blancpain Villeret Doppelchronograph / Rattrapante / Split Second
TOP
Blancpain Villeret Doppelchronograph / Rattrapante / Split Second
S$ 11,935
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Plus Ultra AG
 
CH
Girard Perregaux WW.TC World Time Chronograph 43mm Titanium
Girard Perregaux WW.TC World Time Chronograph 43mm Titanium
S$ 6,432
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Lu-Ann Vintage Collection
 
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Rolex Daytona
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S$ 44,800
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SG
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master GMT Compressor Diving - Box & inhouse...
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Jaeger-LeCoultre Master GMT Compressor Diving - Box & inhouse...
S$ 8,419
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Pawndeluxe
191
NL
Patek Philippe Aquanaut
Patek Philippe Aquanaut
S$ 90,000
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Fino Pte Ltd
SG
Jaeger-LeCoultre Polaris Chronograph 42 mm
TOP
Jaeger-LeCoultre Polaris Chronograph 42 mm
S$ 14,722
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WatchesofMayfair.com
468
UK
Rolex Ladies TT Oyster Perpetual - Mother Of Pearl Diamond...
TOP
Rolex Ladies TT Oyster Perpetual - Mother Of Pearl Diamond...
S$ 4,467
Free shipping
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LovinTyme
97
US
Invicta INV9094OB
Invicta INV9094OB
S$ 130
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RedSol Pte Ltd
 
SG
Omega De Ville Chronometer Ref: 45003100
Omega De Ville Chronometer Ref: 45003100
S$ 2,590
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MARTIN LUXURY PTE LTD
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Longines UltraChron
TOP
Longines UltraChron
S$ 4,915
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Plus Ultra AG
 
CH
Omega Vintage Constellation Calendar Pie Pan Dial
Omega Vintage Constellation Calendar Pie Pan Dial
S$ 13,283
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Lu-Ann Vintage Collection
 
SG
U-Boat U-1001 Limited Edition 78/1001
U-Boat U-1001 Limited Edition 78/1001
S$ 4,800
Seller
Private Seller
SG
Baume & Mercier Capeland Worldtimer - MOA 10106
TOP
Baume & Mercier Capeland Worldtimer - MOA 10106
S$ 4,731
Free shipping
Seller
Pawndeluxe
191
NL
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Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Mechanical Timepieces

Automatic watches are powered by the natural motion of your wrist while you wear them. This type of watch has a rich history reaching back to the 18th century. Today, countless brands produce their own automatic calibers for their watches.

Highlights

  • Automatically wound by the natural movements of your arm
  • Environmentally-friendly: No batteries to produce or throw away
  • The Rolex Oyster Perpetual is one of the most famous automatic watches
  • John Harwood is considered the inventor of the automatic wristwatch
  • Automatic watches available in almost every price range

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Timepieces

Automatic watches fall under the larger umbrella term of mechanical watches. They offer a key advantage over manual timepieces: They wind automatically via the movement of the wearer's arm. An oscillating mass inside the caliber is responsible for winding the spring. Today, this is in most cases a winding rotor. It is flexibly mounted so that gravity pulls it towards the center. When you're wearing the watch and move your wrist, the rotor moves and gives the caliber new energy. Automatic watches don't require batteries, making mechanical watches comparably more environmentally friendly than battery-powered quartz watches.

Automatic watches are available from almost every famous watch manufacturer in all price ranges. Less expensive models are often powered by base calibers made by the ébauche manufacturers ETA, Soprod, or Sellita. Various manufacturers use these calibers in a more or less reworked form in their watches. These calibers even power the watches made by famous brands such as Breitling and TAG Heuer. However, both manufacturers have developed their own in-house movements as well.

Rolex and Patek Philippe are some of the most well-known watch manufacturers. Unlike many other brands, these two Geneva-based manufacturers don't outsource base calibers. Instead, they use their own. For example, Rolex's caliber 3130 is considered very robust, reliable, and precise. These qualities and more make the caliber one of the best automatic movements on the market; it powers Rolex watches such as the Submariner. Since Rolex produces their watches almost entirely in-house, production is costlier. This results in higher prices for automatic watches with in-house movements.

Buying Tips

If you're searching for an automatic watch, the hard part is actually choosing one. Should it be large or small, simple or extravagant, affordable or expensive? The selection is ample for every taste and budget. Pre-owned automatic watches from Citizen, Seiko, or Swatch are available for around 50 euros. These watches often only have three hands for the hours, minutes, and seconds. Some also have a date or even day/date display.

In the price range between 100 and 200 euros, you can find diverse new automatic watches from brands like Seiko or Fossil. Pre-owned watches from long-established manufacturers such as Tissot, Hamilton, or Longines cost up to 500 euros. The situation is similar in the 1,000 euros and under price range, though here you can also find new models from the German brand Marcello C.

In the 1,000 euro price range, you can find pre-owned Omega or Breitling watches. New automatic three-hand watches are available from Oris, Raymond Weil, or Rado.

However, if you're looking for an automatic chronograph, you need to adjust your budget accordingly. A pre-owned automatic chronograph costs at least 500 euros; this applies to watches from brands such as Tissot or Hamilton. New chronographs cost a few hundred euros more, around 800 euros. These watches are often powered by ETA's Valjoux 7750, which is considered one of the most successful automatic chronograph calibers in the world.

If you're searching for a new automatic Rolex, you need to plan on spending at least 3,000 euros. You can purchase the introductory model, Oyster Perpetual, for this price. You can occasionally find pre-owned vintage watches from this Genevan manufacturer for less than 1,000 euros. The Submariner, one of the first and most famous diving watches in the world, is available pre-owned for around 4,100 euros. New, it costs around 5,600 euros. Rolex's chronograph, the Daytona, is available for around 7,500 euros.

The most expensive automatic watches are from brands such as Audemars Piguet and Patek Philippe. These watches are often made of platinum or 18-karat gold and feature countless diamonds on their dial and/or case. At times, these watches are also incredibly expensive as they're rare vintage watches coveted by collectors. Prices over 1 million euros are not too rare when it comes to these watches.

The Technology Behind Automatic Watches

The mainspring of an automatic watch is, as the name suggests, automatically wound by the movement itself. The mainspring is wound, becomes tense, and stores energy. This happens through the natural movements of the wearer's arm when the watch is on his or her wrist. This mechanism eliminates the need to manually wind the mainspring. Instead, an oscillating mass - often the rotor - winds the mainspring. Gravity causes the flexibly mounted rotor to move towards the center and a gear-train transfers the energy from the rotor's movement to the barrel. Viewed from a physics standpoint, the mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy.

There are automatic movements that wind in one or both directions. Bi-directional winding movements have so-called reverser gears. These ensure that the rotor winds the barrel in both directions. Uni-directional winding movements actually wind bidirectionally, but the mainspring is only wound in one direction. Both variants have a reduction gear which converts the fast movements of the rotor into slower movements with more torque. The end of the mainspring is not directly connected to the barrel so that it doesn't snap off when it's fully wound. The outer end of the spring is outfitted with a bridle, which keeps the pressure on the mainspring's outermost coil. When not fully wound, that pressure allows the outer end of the mainspring to be caught in a notch in the barrel wall. Once the spring is fully wound, it moves along to the next notch.

Automatic watches have many advantages: They're comfortable, environmentally-friendly, and usually more precise. This improved precision is due to the mainspring, which is always tense and has a more constant torque than mainsprings in hand-wound calibers. This has a positive effect on the amplitude. The amplitude is the balance wheel's degree of rotation and refers to the wheel's maximum rotation angle between equilibrium and a reversal point.

Technical Details of Automatic Watches

  • The winding rotor winds the mainspring in the barrel
  • Advantages: no manual winding required, environmentally-friendly, more precise
  • Uni-directional and bi-directional winding movements

The Origins of Automatic Watches

Automatic winding is one of the most important and long-lasting innovations in the history of watchmaking and the mechanism is one of the most widespread complications in use today.

Today's automatic watches can trace their origin back to the year 1729. Abraham-Louis Perrelet improved the winding mechanism of pocket watches in the 18th century. A small key was required to wind a movement before this improvement. Since the key was never there when you needed it, winding mechanisms that didn't require a key were in high demand. Perrelet wanted to invent a self-winding pocket watch. In 1770, he introduced his pedometer watch after countless attempts. The watch had an oscillating weight which teetered back and forth as the wearer walked. The motion caused the oscillating weight to tense the mainspring. Perrelet also developed a caliber with a winding rotor which swiveled above the movement. With these innovations, the groundwork for today's automatic watches was laid.

Refined men carried their pocket watches tucked away safely in their jacket, vest, or pants. The timepieces barely moved while in their pockets, which meant that the oscillating mass didn't have enough energy to wind the mainspring. The crown-wind method solved the key-wind problem in the mid-19th century, making the automatic pocket watch superfluous.

The First Automatic Wristwatches

The French watchmaker Léon Leroy was also a pioneer in the development of automatic watches. He presented his first automatic wristwatch in 1922. Some of these watches even had a date display. However, Leroy was far away from being able to mass produce a series.

The British watchmaker John Harwood lead automatic wristwatches to series production. He began working on automatic movements in 1922. Two years later, he patented his work, paving the way for the first series-produced automatic wristwatches.

Rolex's Oyster Perpetual was one of the first automatic wristwatches. Rolex introduced the watch to the market in 1931. It's one of the few early models that has lasted over the years and is still produced today. The principle behind Oyster Perpetual's winding rotor is at the heart of every modern automatic wristwatch.

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